Sunday, April 17, 2011

ScienceDaily: Latest Science News

ScienceDaily: Latest Science News

New patient guidelines for heart devices

Posted: 16 Apr 2011 07:39 AM PDT

A series of new guidelines for cardiac specialists has been developed to determine when heart failure patients should receive a mechanical heart-pumping device.

Twitter and natural disasters: Crisis communication lessons from the Japan tsunami

Posted: 15 Apr 2011 12:47 PM PDT

Researchers in Japan surveyed and questioned Twitter users and tracked updates from people in the disaster-struck area on the social media site two weeks after the Tohoku earthquake and devastating tsunami of March 11. They hoped to determine what benefits such a system can bring to people involved in a disaster and to those hoping to hear news.

Non-cardiac surgery: Safe for patients with heart device, study finds

Posted: 15 Apr 2011 12:47 PM PDT

Non-cardiac surgery can be performed safely in patients with a heart device typically implanted into patients waiting for a transplant, according to a new study.

Inhaled corticosteroid therapy reduces pneumonia mortality, large study finds

Posted: 15 Apr 2011 09:40 AM PDT

Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) who are hospitalized for pneumonia and treated with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) have decreased mortality when compared to those who are not treated with ICS, according to a retrospective analysis of almost 16,000 COPD patients admitted to VA hospitals.

How beliefs shape effort and learning

Posted: 15 Apr 2011 08:40 AM PDT

If it was easy to learn, it will be easy to remember -- right? Psychological scientists have maintained that nearly everyone uses this simple rule to assess their own learning. Now a new study suggests otherwise.

Introducing the world's first intubation robot

Posted: 15 Apr 2011 08:40 AM PDT

Researchers have introduced the first intubation robot operated by remote control. The robotic system may facilitate the intubation procedure and reduce some complications associated with airway management.

Key to personalized cancer medicine unlocked using tumor metabolism

Posted: 15 Apr 2011 08:39 AM PDT

Identifying gene mutations in cancer patients to predict clinical outcome has been the cornerstone of cancer research for nearly three decades, but now researchers have invented a new approach that instead links cancer cell metabolism with poor clinical outcome. This approach can now be applied to virtually any type of human cancer cell.

Experimental drug inhibits cell signaling pathway and slows ovarian cancer growth

Posted: 15 Apr 2011 07:45 AM PDT

An experimental drug that blocks two points of a crucial cancer cell signaling pathway inhibits the growth of ovarian cancer cells and significantly increases survival in an ovarian cancer mouse model, a study has found.

Mothers who breastfeed often viewed as less competent than other women, study finds

Posted: 15 Apr 2011 07:45 AM PDT

While breastfeeding babies has numerous health advantages to both mother and child, mothers who breastfeed may find that other people look down on them and do not want to work with them. A recent study found that mothers who breastfeed are viewed as less competent than other women.

People know when first impressions are accurate

Posted: 15 Apr 2011 07:45 AM PDT

First impressions are important, and they usually contain a healthy dose both of accuracy and misperception. But do people know when their first impressions are correct? They do reasonably well, according to a new study.

GPS data used to model effects of tidal loads on Earth's surface

Posted: 15 Apr 2011 07:45 AM PDT

Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite technology is helping researchers find their way to a more complete understanding of Earth's interior structure.

Hydrocarbons deep within Earth: New computational study reveals how

Posted: 15 Apr 2011 07:45 AM PDT

A new computational study reveals how hydrocarbons may be formed from methane in deep Earth at extreme pressures and temperatures. The thermodynamic and kinetic properties of hydrocarbons at high pressures and temperature are important for understanding carbon reservoirs and fluxes in Earth.

Recipe for radioactive compounds aids nuclear waste and fuel storage pools studies

Posted: 15 Apr 2011 07:45 AM PDT

Easy-to-follow recipes for radioactive compounds like those found in nuclear fuel storage pools, liquid waste containment areas and other contaminated aqueous environments have been developed by researchers.

Inability to detect sarcasm, lies may be early sign of dementia, study shows

Posted: 15 Apr 2011 07:45 AM PDT

By asking a group of older adults to analyze videos of other people conversing -- some talking truthfully, some insincerely -- a group of scientists has determined which areas of the brain govern a person's ability to detect sarcasm and lies.

Acid levels control formic acid metabolism in bacterium

Posted: 15 Apr 2011 05:49 AM PDT

Formate, the salt of formic acid, is an important product of metabolism in bacteria and -- in contrast to human metabolism -- a preliminary stage of the gas carbon dioxide, which is released in the combustion of sugar. Enterobacteriaceae, a large family of bacteria, possess the formate channel FocA, a specialized transport protein that transports the negatively charged ion of the formic acid over the cell membrane of the bacteria. Now researchers have succeeded in isolating and crystallizing FocA from the bacterium Salmonella typhimurium at a low pH value.

Vanilla: Preserving a world favorite flavor

Posted: 15 Apr 2011 05:33 AM PDT

Vanilla is one of the world's best-loved flavors, and demand for it is increasing all the time. But now its future in the global food industry could be more secure, thanks to new research in Malaysia.

Successful blueprints are recycled by evolution, study suggests

Posted: 15 Apr 2011 05:33 AM PDT

A new study finds evidence that the different cell types that make up organs have arisen only once during the course of evolution. The programs to develop these cells have been passed on ever since.

Earth's dust and plankton from space: New views from Envisat satellite

Posted: 15 Apr 2011 05:33 AM PDT

Europe's Envisat satellite has captured a new view of dust and sand from the Algerian Sahara Desert, located in northern Africa, blowing west across the Atlantic Ocean.

Miniature sensors to measure the ocean

Posted: 15 Apr 2011 05:33 AM PDT

The first miniature sensors designed to measure saltiness and temperature across the world's oceans are being put in use on an ambitious expedition.

Molecular messages from moth antennae: Scientists assemble genes involved in regulating olfaction

Posted: 15 Apr 2011 05:33 AM PDT

Insects use their antennae for smelling and thus for locating resources in their environment. In a new study, researchers present the first complete analysis of genes involved in antennal olfaction of the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta. Approximately 70 different receptors expressed in some 100,000 neurons allow these moths to detect a large number of odours and to perform relevant door-guided behaviours. This is the first more or less complete antennal transcriptome characterized in a non-model insect.

Can nudging help fight the obesity epidemic? UK experts debate

Posted: 15 Apr 2011 05:32 AM PDT

With obesity rates soaring, the UK government has been promoting nudge -- a strategy that does not tell people how to live but encourages them to make healthy choices in respect of diet and exercise. Experts debate whether nudge is an effective way to tackle obesity.

Artificial pancreas may improve overnight control of diabetes in adults

Posted: 15 Apr 2011 05:32 AM PDT

Two small randomized trials suggest that closed loop insulin delivery (also known as an artificial pancreas) may improve overnight blood glucose control and reduce the risk of nocturnal hypoglycemia (a sudden drop in blood glucose levels during the night) in adults with type 1 diabetes.

Mortality rate is increased in persons with autism who also have epilepsy, study finds

Posted: 15 Apr 2011 05:31 AM PDT

A comprehensive investigation of postmortem brain tissue has determined that one-third of the brain donors with autism also had epilepsy, and co-morbidity data revealed a higher than expected rate of mortality in individuals with both autism and epilepsy than for individuals with autism alone.

Probiotic may reduce rate of recurrent urinary tract infections in women, study suggests

Posted: 15 Apr 2011 05:31 AM PDT

Urinary tract infections are common in women and occur frequently, affecting 2 to 3 percent of all women. A depletion of vaginal lactobacilli, a type of bacteria, is associated with urinary tract infection risk, which suggests that replenishing these bacteria may be beneficial. Researchers conducted a double-blind placebo-controlled trial to investigate this theory. Their results suggest that a probiotic may reduce the rate of recurrent urinary tract infections in women prone to these infections.

Blood test could predict metastasis risk in melanoma, study finds

Posted: 15 Apr 2011 05:31 AM PDT

Scientists have identified a set of plasma biomarkers that could reasonably predict the risk of metastasis among patients with melanoma, according to new findings.

Safer treatment for millions suffering from trypanosome parasite infection

Posted: 15 Apr 2011 05:31 AM PDT

A safer and more effective treatment for 10 million people in developing countries who suffer from infections caused by trypanosome parasites could become a reality, thanks to new research.

Crash rates may be higher for teen drivers who start school earlier in the morning

Posted: 15 Apr 2011 05:31 AM PDT

A new study shows increased automobile crash rates among teen drivers who start school earlier in the morning.

Genital herpes more virulent in Africa than in US, report finds

Posted: 15 Apr 2011 05:31 AM PDT

Strains of genital herpes in Africa are far more virulent than those in the United States, researchers report -- a striking insight into a common disease with important implications for preventing HIV transmission in a region staggered by the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

Safety of stored blood among chief concerns for transfusion medicine community

Posted: 15 Apr 2011 05:31 AM PDT

In light of recent studies that suggest the use of stored blood during transfusions may cause adverse effects in patients, a number of research projects were funded to examine the safety of transfusing older red cells and the impact of stored blood on respiratory gases. These papers discussing potential adverse effects of stored blood and related concerns for oxygen delivery by transfusion are now available online.

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